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The Krishnamurthy Lab


  1. Chimeric XNA - An Unconventional Design for Orthogonal Informational Systems. Efthymiou, T.; Gavette, J.; Stoop. M.; De Riccardis, F.; Froyen, M.; Herdewijn, P.; Krishnamurthy, R. 2018, Accepted Article.                                                                          Mixing-NA.png
  2. Life's Biological Chemistry: A Destiny or Destination Starting from Prebiotic Chemistry? Krishnamurthy, R. Chem. Eur. J. 2018, Accepted Article.                                                                                                                    Fontispice-Graphic.png
  3. Heterogeneous Pyrophosphate Linked DNA-Oligonucleotides: Aversion for DNA but Affinity for RNA. Anderson, B.; Krishnamurthy, R. Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 6837-6842.                                  Figure-1.png
  4. Effect of temperature modulations on TEMPO-mediated regioselective oxidation of unprotected carbohydrates and nucleosides. Yadav, M.; Liotta, C. L.; Krishnamurthy, R. Biorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2018, Accepted.                                                   1-s2.0-S0960894X18300775-fx1.jpg
  5. Rapid Resolution of Carbohydrate Isomers via Multi-site Derivatization Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. Li, L,; McKenna, K. R.; Li, Z.; Yadav, M.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Liotta, C. L.; Facundo, M. F. Analyst, 2018, Accepted.                                             Get-1.jpeg.gif
  6. Linked cycles of oxidative decarboxylation of glyoxylate as protometabolic analgos of the citric acid cycle. Springsteen, G.; Yerabolu, J. R.; Nelos, J.; Rhea, C. J.; Krishnamurthy, R. Nature Communications, 2018, 9:91; DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-0259-0   Figure 2 from paper  Abstract:

    The development of metabolic approaches towards understanding the origins of life, which have focused mainly on the citric acid (TCA) cycle, have languishedprimarily due to a lack of experimentally demonstrable and sustainable cycle(s) of reactions. We show here the existence of a protometabolic analog of the TCA involving two linked cycles, which convert glyoxylate into CO2 and produce aspartic acid in the presence of ammonia. The reactions proceed from either pyruvate, oxaloacetate or malonate in the presence of glyoxylate as the carbon source and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under neutral aqueous conditions and at mild temperatures. The reaction pathway demonstrates turnover under controlled conditions. These results indicate that simpler versions of metabolic cycles could have emerged under potential prebiotic conditions, laying the foundation for the appearance of more sophisticated metabolic pathways once control by (polymeric) catalysts became available.

  7. Glycosylation of a model proto-RNA nucleobase with non-ribose sugars: Implications for the prebiotic synthesis of nucleosides. Filaho, D.; Clarke, K.; Moore, M.; Schuster, G.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Hud, N. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2018, 16, 1263-1271           Get.jpeg.gif
  8. Phosphorylation, oligomerization and self-assembly in water under potential prebiotic conditions. Gibard, C.; Bhowmik, S.; Karki, M.; Kim, E.-K.; Krishnamurthy, R. Nat. Chem. 2018, 10, 212-217.Screen-Shot-2018-01-23-at-9.21.40-AM.pngNature-Chemistry2018_Feb001.jpg
  9. Elongation of Model Prebiotic Proto-peptides by Continious Monomer Feeding. Yu, S-S.; Martin, S.; Blanchard, M.; Soper-Hopper, M.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Fernandez, F.; Hud, N,; Schork, F. J.; Gover, M. Macromolecules, 2017, 50, 9286–9294. ma-2017-01569a_0009.gif
  10. Surveying the sequence diversity of model prebiotic peptides by mass spectrometry. Forsythe, J.G., Petrov, A. S.; Sheng-Sheng, Y., Krishnamurthy, R., Grover, M., Hud, N. V., Facundo, M. F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Soc. 2017, 114, E7652-E7659.      F2.medium.gif
  11. Nitrogenous Derivatives of Phosphorus and the Origins of Life: Plausible Prebiotic Phosphorylating Agents in Water. Karki, M.; Gibard, C.; Bhowmik, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. Life, 2017, 7, 32.  TOC graphic       Abstract
  12. Orotidine Containing RNA: Implications for the Hierarchical Selection (Systems Chemistry Emergence ) of RNA. Kim, E.-K.; Martin, V.; Krishnamurthy, R.Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 12668-12675TOC graphic     Abstract
  13. Investigations towards the synthesis of 5-amino-L-lyxofuranosides and 4-amino-lyxopyranosides and NMR analysis. Alba Diez-Martinez, A.; Krishnamurthy, R. SynOpen, 2017, 1, 29-40 Abstract Figure
  14. Anchimeric-assisted Spontaneous Hydrolysis of Cyanohydrins Under Ambient Conditions: Implications for Cyanide Initiated Selective Transformations. Yerabolu, J. R.; Liotta, C.L.; Krishnamurthy, R. Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 8756-8765. Cyanide initiated chemistry abstract     
  15. Reaction of Glycine with Glyoxylate: Competing Transaminations, Aldol Reactions, and Decarboxylations. Conley, M.; Mojica, M.; Mohammed, F.;  Chen, K.;  Napoline , J. W.; Pollet, P.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Liotta, C. L. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2017, 30, e3709.Glycine Glyoxyate   
  16. Giving Rise to Life: Transition from Prebiotic Chemistry to Protobiology. Krishnamurthy, R. Acc. Chem Res. 2017, 50, 455–459.Abstract
  17. Prebiotic Organic Chemistry and Chemical pre-Biology: Speaking to the Synthetic Organic Chemists. Krishnamurthy, R.; Snieckus, V. Synlett, 2017, 28, 27-29.ClusterSynlett 2017 Cover
  18. Nucleobase Modification by an RNA Enzyme. Poudyal, R. R.; Ngyuyen, P. D. M.; Lokugamage, M. P.; Callaway, M. K.; Gavette, J. V.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Burke, D. H. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017, 45, 1345-1354.                                        Abstract              
  19. A Plausible Prebiotic Origin of Glyoxylate: Nonenzymatic Transamination Reactions of Glycine with Formaldehyde. Mohammed, F. S.; Chen, K.; Mojica, M.; Conley, M.; Napoline, J. W.; Butch, C. J.; Pollet, P.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Liotta, C. L. Synlett, 2017, 28, 93-97.Liotta         
  20. Mineral-Induced Enantioenrichment of Tartaric Acid, Gherase, D.; Hazen, R. M.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Blackmond, D. Synlett, 2017, 28, 88-92.Blackmond paper   

  21. The Abiotic Oxidation of Organic Acids to Malonate.Rice, G. B.; Yerabolu, J. R.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Springsteen, G. Synlett, 2017, 28, 98-102. Greg Synlett Cluster   
  22. Kinetics of prebiotic depsipeptide formation from the ester–amide exchange reaction. Yu, S-S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Fernandez, F.; Hud, N. V.; Schork, F. J.; Grover, M. A.Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016, 18, 28441-28450.                                             Martha Collaboration
  23. RNA-DNA Chimeras in the Context of an RNA-world Transition to an RNA/DNA-world. Gavette, J. V.; Stoop. M.; Hud, N. V.; Krishnamurthy, R. Angew. Chemie, Int, Ed. 2016, 55, 13204-13209.  Abstract
  24. Spontaneous Formation and Base Pairing of Plausible Prebiotic Nucleotides in Water. Cafferty, B. J.;  Fialho, D.;  Khanam, J.;  Krishnamurthy, R.; Hud, N.Nature Communications 2016, 7, Article number: 11328Abstract
  25. Small molecule-mediated duplex formation of nucleic acids with ‘incompatible’ backbones. Cafferty, B. J.; Musetti, C.; Kim, K.; Horowitz, E.D.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Hud, N. V. ChemComm. 2016, 52, 5436-5439.  Abstract              Figure 1

  26. pH Controlled Reaction Divergence of Decarboxylation versus Fragmentation in Reactions of Dihydroxyfumarate with Glyoxylate and Formaldehyde: Parallels to Biological Pathways. Butch, C.J.; Wang, J.; Gu, J.; Vindas, R.; Crowe, J.; Pollet, P.; Gelbaum, L.; Leszczynski, J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; L. Liotta, C. L. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2016, 29, 352-360.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AbstractAbstractCover page
  27. Hydrogen-Bonding Complexes of 5-Azauracil and Uracil Derivatives in Organic Medium.  Diez-Martinez, A.; Kim, E-K.; Krishnamurthy, R. J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 7066-7075.Abstract JOC 2015
  28. Ester-Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet-Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on Prebiotic Earth. Forsythe, J.G.; Yu, S-S.; Mamajanov, I.; Grover, M.A.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Fernandez, F.M.; Hud, N.H. Angew. Chem. Int . Ed. 2015, 54, 9871-9875, DOI: 10.1002/ange.201503792AbstrMechanism
  29. Synthesis of Orotidine by Intramolecular Nucleosidation. Kim, E-K.; Krishnamurthy, R. ChemComm. 2015, 51, 5618-5621.


  30. The Emergence of RNA. Krishnamurthy, R. Israel J. Chemistry, 2015, 55, 837-850; Cover page

    ACRCover Page

  31. Microwave-Assisted Phosphitylations of DNA and RNA Nucleosides and Their Analogs. Efthymiou, T.; Krishnamurthy, R. Curr. Protoc. Nucleic Acid Chem. 60:2.19.1-2.19.20, 2015,DOI:10.1002/0471142700.nc0219s60.


  32. Synthesis of phosphoramidites of isoGNA, an isomer of glycerol nucleic acid. Kim, K.; Punna, V.; Karri, P.; Krishnamurthy, R.Beil. J. Org. Chem. 2014, 10, 2131-2138. Abstract Beilstein
  33. A Plausible Simultaneous Synthesis of Amino Acids and Simple Peptides on the Primordial Earth. Parker, E. T.; Zhou, M.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Fernandez, F. M.; Bada, J. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 8132-8136.Illustrated Back CoverAbstract
  34. Microwave-Assisted Preparation of Nucleoside-Phosphoramidites. Meher, G.; Efthymiou, T.; Stoop, M.; Krishnamurthy, R. ChemComm, 2014, 50, 7463-7465.   AbstractMW phosphitylation
  35. RNA as an Emergent Entity: An Understanding Gained Through Studying its Non-Functional Alternatives. Krishnamurthy, R. Synlett, 2014, 25, 1511-1518.           AbstractAbstract
  36. Spontaneous Prebiotic Formation of a β-Ribofuranoside That Self-Assembles with a Complementary Heterocycle. Chen, M.C.; Cafferty, B.J.; Mamajanov, I.; Gallego, I.; Khanam, J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Hud, N. V. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 5640-5646.



  37. Production of Tartrates by Cyanide Mediated Dimerization of Glyoxylate: A Potential Abiotic Pathway to the Citric Acid Cycle. Butch, C.; Cope, E.D.; Pollet, P.L.; Gelbaum, L.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Liotta, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 13440-13445.Tartrate JACS 2013 abstract
  38. Chemical Etiology of Nucleic Acid Structure. The Pentulofuranosyl Oligonucleotide Systems: (1'→3')-β-L-Ribulo, (4'→3')-α-L-Xylulo, and (1'3')-α-L-Xylulo Nucleic Acids. Stoop, M.; Meher, G.; Karri, P.; Krishnamurthy, R. Chem. Eur. J. 2013, 19, 15336-15345.Pentulose-NA

  39. Base-Pairing Properties of a Structural Isomer of Glycerol Nucleic Acid. Karri, P.; Punna, V.; Kim, K.; Krishnamurthy, R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 5840-5844.isoGNA
  40. The Origin of RNA and ‘‘My Grandfather’s Axe’’. Hud, N.; Cafferty, B.J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Williams, L.D. Chemistry & Biology, 2013, 20, 466-474.
  41. Role of pKa of Nucleobases in the Origins of Chemical Evolution. Krishnamurthy, R. Acc. Chem. Res. 2012, 45, 2035-2044. Correction.pKa of nucleobases
  42. A Unified Mechanism for Abiotic Adenine and Purine Synthesis in Formamide. Hudson, J. S.; Eberle, J. F.; Vachhani, R. H.; Rogers, L. C.; Wade, J. H.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Springsteen, G. Angew. Chemie. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 5134-5137.                                                          Unified Mechanism
  43. Exploratory Experiments on the Chemistry of the "Glyoxylate Scenario": Formation of Ketosugars from Dihydroxyfumarate. Sagi, V.N.; Punna, V.; Hu, F.; Meher, G.; Krishnamurthy, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 3577-3589. PMCID# PMC3284196DHF-glyoxylate
  44. Diastereoselective Self-Condensation of Dihydroxyfumaric Acid in Water: Potential Route to Sugars. Sagi, V.N.; Karri, P.; Hu, F., Krishnamurthy, R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 8127-8130.                                                                                             DHF self condensation
  45. An expedient synthesis of L-ribulose and derivatives. Meher, G.; Krishnamurthy, R. Carbohydr. Res. 2011, 346, 703-707.ribulose
  46. Mapping the Landscape of Potentially Primordial Informational Oligomers: (3’→2’)-D-Phosphoglyceric Acid Linked Acyclic Oligonucleotides Tagged with 2,4-Disubstituted 5-Aminopyrimidines as Recognition Elements. Hernández-Rodríguez M.; Xie, J.; Osornio, Y. M.; Krishnamurthy, R. Chemistry An Asian Journal, 2011, 6, 1251-1262.     glyceric acid NAGlyceric acid NA2

  47. Mapping the Landscape of Potentially Primordial Informational Oligomers: Oligo-Dipeptides Tagged with 6-Carboxy-pyrimidines as Recognition Elements. Zhang, X.; Krishnamurthy, R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 8124-8128.                        orotic acid tagged dipeptide
  48. A search for Structural Alternatives of RNA. Krishnamurthy, R. J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 2009, 53, 23-33.pKa of nucleobases correlation
  49. Structure of TNA-TNA complex in solution: NMR Study of the Octamer Duplex Derived from α-(L)-threofuranosyl-(3’–2’)-CGAATTCG. Ebert, M-O.; Mang, C.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A.; Jaun, B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 15105-15115.TNA NMR structure
  50. Mapping the Landscape of Potentially Primordial Informational Oligomers: Oligo-Dipeptides Tagged with 2,4-Disubstituted 5-amino-pyrimidines as Recognition Elements. Mittapalli, G.K.; Osornio, Y.M.; Guerrero, M.A.; Ravinder, K.R.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2478-2484.trazines
  51. Mapping the Landscape of Potentially Primordial Informational Oligomers: Oligo-dipeptides and Oligo-dipeptoids Tagged with Triazines as Recognition Elements. Mittapalli, G.K.; Ravinder, K.R.; Xiong, H.; Munoz, O.; Han, B.; De Riccardis, De F.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2470-2477.Triazines
  52. Tautomerism in 5,8-Diaza-7,9-dicarbaguanine (‘Alloguanine’). Wagner, T.; Han, B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2005, 88, 1960-1968.
  53. Mannich-Type C-nucleosidations with 7-Carba-purines and 4-Amino-pyrimidines. Han, B.; Rajwanshi, V.; Nandy, J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Synlett. 2005, 744-750.
  54. Mannich-Type C-Nucleosidations in the 5,8-Diaza-7,9-dicarba-purine Family.  Han, B.; Jaun, B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 3691-3694.
  55. Base-Pairing Systems Related to TNA Containing Phosphoramidate Linkages: Synthesis of Building Blocks and Pairing Properties. Ferenic, M.; Reddy, G.; Wu, X.; Guntha, S.; Nandy, J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 2004, 1, 939-979.
  56. The β-D-Ribopyranosyl-(4’→2’)-oligonucleotide System (‘pyranosyl-RNA’): Synthesis and Resumé of Base-Pairing Properties. Pitsch, S.; Wendeborn, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Holzner, A.; Minton, M.; Bolli, M.; Miculca, C.; Windhab, N.; Micura, R.; Stanek, M.; Jaun, B.; Eschenmoser, A. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2003, 86, 4270-4363.
  57. Assignment of the 1H and 13C-NMR Spectra of N2,N6-dibenzoyl-N2,N9-bis(2’,3’-di-O-benzoyl-(a)-L-Threofuranosyl)-2,6-diaminopurine. Delgado, G.; Krishnamurthy, R. Revista de la Sociedad Quimica de Mexico, 2003, 47, 216-220.
  58. Why Does TNA Cross-Pair More Strongly with RNA Than with DNA? An Answer From X-ray Analysis. Pallan, P. S.; Wilds, C. J.; Wawrzak, Z.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A., Egli., M Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 5893-5895.
  59. C-Nucleosidations with 2,6-Diamino-5,8-diaza-7,9-dicarba-purine. Han, B.; Wang, Z.; Jaun, B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 2071-2074.
  60. 2,6-Diamino-5,8-diaza-7,9-dicarba-purine. Wang, Z.; Huynh, H. K.; Han, B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 2067-2070.
  61. Pentopyranosyl Oligonucleotide Systems. The α-L-Arabinopyranosyl-(4’→2’)-Oligonucleotide System: Synthesis and Pairing Properties. Jungmann, O.; Beier, M.; Luther, A.; Huynh, H. K.; Ebert, M. O.; Jaun, B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2003, 86, 1259-1308.
  62. The α-L-Threofuranosyl-(3’→2’)-Oligonucleotide System (‘TNA’): Synthesis and Pairing Properties. Schoning, K.-U.; Scholz, P.; Wu, X.; Guntha, S., Delgado, G.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2002, 85, 4111-4153.
  63. Crystal Structure of a B-Form DNA Duplex Containing L-α-Threofuranosyl-(3’→2’)-Nucleosides: A Four-Carbon sugar is easily accommodated into the back bone of DNA. Wilds, C. J.; Wawrzak, Z.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A.; Egli, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 13716-13721.
  64. NMR Solution Structure of Duplex Formed by Self-Pairing of α-(D)-Arabinopyranosyl-(4’→2’)-(CGAATTCG). Ebert, M-O.; Hoan, H. K.; Luther, A.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A., Jaun, B. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2002, 85, 4055-4073.
  65. 2,6-Diaminopurines in TNA: Effect on Duplex Stabilities and on the Efficiency of Template-Controlled Ligations. Wu, X.; Delgado, G.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 1283-1286.
  66. Base-Pairing Systems Related to TNA: α-Threofuranosyl Oligonucleotides Containing Phosphoramidate Linkages. Wu, X.; Guntha, S.; Ferencic, M.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 1279-1282.
  67. Pentopyranosyl Oligonucleotide Systems. β-(D)-Xylopyranosyl-(4’→2’)-oligonucleotide System. Wagner, T.; Hoan, H. K.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2002, 85, 399-416.
  68. Pentopyranosyl Oligonucleotide Systems. Systems with Shortened Backbones: (D)-β-Ribopyranosyl-(4’→3’)- and (L)-α-Lyxopyranosyl-(4’→3’)-oligonucleotide System. Wippo, H.; Reck, F.; Kudick, R.; Ramasehsan, M.; Ceulemans, G., Bolli, M.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2001, 9, 2411-2428.
  69. Pentopyranosyl Oligonucleotide Systems. The α-L-Lyxopyranosyl-(4’→2’)-oligonucleotide System. Reck, F.; Wippo, H.; Kudick, R.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2001, 84, 1778-1804.
  70. Chemical Etiology of Nucleic Acid Structure: The α-Threofuranosyl-(3’→2’) Oligonucleotide System. Schöning, K.-U.; Scholz, P.; Guntha, S.; Wu, X.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Science 2000, 290, 1347-1351.
  71. Concentration of Simple Aldehydes by Sulfite-Containing Double-Layer Hydroxide Minerals: Implications for Biopoesis. Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius. G. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2000, 83, 2398.
  72. Regioselective a-Phosphorylation of Aldoses in Aqueous Solution. Krishnamurthy, R.; Guntha, S.; Eschenmoser. A. Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 2281.
  73. Before RNA and After: Geophysical and Geochemical Constraints on Molecular Evolution. Mojzsis, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G. in The RNA World’, second edition, pp 1-47, Eds. Gesteland, R. F.; Cech, T. R.; Atkins, J. F. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1999. DOI: 10.1101/087969589.37.1
  74. L-α-Lyxopyranosyl (4'→3') Oligonucleotides: A Base-Pairing System Containing a Shortened Backbone. Reck, F.; Wippo, H.; Kudick, R.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Organic Letters, 1999, 1, 1531-1534.
  75. Promiscuous Watson-Crick Cross-Pairing within the Family of Pentopyranosyl (4'→2') Oligonucleotides. Jungmann, O.; Wippo, H.; Stanek, M.; Huynh, H. K.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A. Organic Letters, 1999, 1, 1527-1530.
  76. Chemical Etiology of Nucleic Acid Structure: Comparing Pentopyranosyl-(2'→4') Oligonucleotides with RNA. Beier, M.; Reck, F.; Wagner, T.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Eschenmoser, A.  Science 1999, 283, 699-703.
  77. Formation of Glycolaldehyde Phosphate From Glycolaldehyde in Aqueous Solution. Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G; Eschenmoser, A.  Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 1999, 29, 333-354.
  78. Mineral Induced Formation of Pentose-2,4-diphosphates. Krishnamurthy, R.; Pitsch, S.; Arrhenius, G.  Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 1999, 29, 139-152.
  79. Formation of sugar phosphates under potentially natural conditions. Krishnamurthy, R.; Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Arrhenius, G.  Mineral. Mag. 1998, 62A(Pt. 2), 815.
  80. Pyranosyl-RNA: Base-pairing beween Homochiral Oligonucelotide Strands of Opposite Sense of Chirality. Krishnamurthy, R.; Pitsch, S.; Minton, M.; Miculka, C.; Windhab, N.; Eschenmoser, A. Angewandte Chemie, Int. Ed. Engl. 1996, 35, 1537-1541.
  81. p-RNA, the pyranosyl isomer of RNA: Pairing properties and potential to replicate. Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Wendeborn, S.; Holzner, A.; Minton, M.; Lesueur, C.; Schlönvogt, I.; Jaun, B.; Eschenmoser, A. Helevetica chimica Acta  1995, 78, 1621-1635.
  82. Bis(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzopinacolate: Preparation and Use as a Mediator of Intermolecular Free Radical Reactions. Hart, D. J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; PooK, L. M.; Seely, F. L. Tetrahedron Letters 1993, 34, 7819-7822.
  83. Synthesis of 6H-Dibenzo(b,d)pyran-6-ones via Dienone-Phenol Rearrangements of Spiro(2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,1'(3'H)-isobenzofuran)-3'-ones. Hart, D. J.; Kim, A.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Merriman, G. H.; Waltos, A-M. Tetrahedron 1992, 48, 8179-8188.
  84. Investigation of a Model for 1,2-Asymmetric Induction in Reactions of a-Carbalkoxy Radicals: A Stereochemical Comparison of Reactions of α-Carbalkoxy Radicals and Ester Enolates. Hart, D. J.; Krishnamurthy, R. J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57, 4457-4470.
  85. Stereoselective Free Radical Reactions at C(20) of Steroid Chains. Hart, D. J.; Krishnamurthy, R., Synlett. 1991, 412-414.
  86. Free-Radical Cyclizations: Application to the Total Synthesis of dl-Pleuorotin and dl-Pleurotinic acid. Hart, D. J.; Huang, H.-C; Krishnamurthy, R.; Schwartz, T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 7507-7519.