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Andrew Ward, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor
Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology
California Campus
(858) 784-7320

Scripps Research Joint Appointments

Faculty, Graduate Program

Research Focus

Investigating membrane proteins and viruses using integrative structural biology techniques

Membrane protein transporters mediate the passage of a wide variety of molecules into and out of the cell.  The molecular details underlying the function of most transporters are still unknown.  Thus, my group is interested in studying novel membrane proteins using x-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and other biophysical techniques. 

Membrane proteins expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses mediate viral entry into the cell by recognizing cell surface receptors and initiating endocytosis or membrane fusion.  Recently, broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting these surface spikes have been shown to provide protection against viruses such as HIV and influenza.  We are trying to better understand how these antibodies bind to and neutralize viruses.  Using single particle electron microscopy and electron tomography we are able to visualize these complexes and whole viruses, providing information about the mechanism of inhibition and aiding in the design of better immunogens for eliciting a broadly neutralizing antibody response in humans.


B.S., Duke University, 2001
Ph.D., The Scripps Research Institute, 2008

Selected References

Ward, A., Reyes, C. L., Yu, J., Roth, C. B., and Chang, G. (2007) Flexibility in the ABC transporter MsbA: Alternating access with a twist. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:19005-19010. PMC ID: 2141898

Ward, A., Mulligan, S., Carragher, B., Chang, G., and Milligan, R. A. (2009) Nucleotide dependent packing differences in helical crystals of the ABC transporter MsbA. J Struct Biol 165:169-175. PMC ID: 2703300

Aller, S. G., Yu, J., Ward, A., Weng, Y., Chittaboina, S., Zhuo, R., Harrell, P. M., Trinh, Y. T., Zhang, Q., Urbatsch, I. L., and Chang, G. (2009) Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for poly-specific drug binding. Science 323:1718-1722. PMC ID: 2720052

Pejchal R., Doores, K.J., Walker, L.M., Khayat, R., Huang, P.S., Wang, S.K., Stanfield, R.L., Julien, J.P., Ramos, A., Crispin M., Depetris R., Katpally, U., Marozsan, A., Cupo, A., Maloveste, S., Liu, Y., McBride, R., Ito, Y., Sanders, R.W., Ogohara, C., Paulsen, J.C., Feizi, T., Scanlan, C.N., Wong, C.H., Moore, J.P., Olson, W.C., Ward A.B., Poignard, P., Schief, W.R., Burton, D.R., Wilson, I.A. (2011) A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield.  Science. Oct. 13, Epub ahead of print. PMID 21998254.

McClellan, J.S., Pancera, M., Carrico, C., Gorman, J., Julien, J.P., Khayat, R., Louder, R., Pejchal, R., Sastry, M., Dai, K., O’Dell, S., Patel, N., Shahzad-ul-Hussan, S., Yang, Y., Zhang, B., Zhou, T., Zhu, J., Boyington, H.C., Chuang, G.W., Diwanji, D., Georgiev, I., Kwon Y.D., Lee, D., Louder, M.K., Moquin, S., Schmidt, S.D., Yang, Z., Bonsignori, M., Crump, J.A., Kapiga, S.H., Sam, N.E., Haynes, B.F., Burton, D.R., Koff, W.C., Walker, L.M., Phogat, S., Wyatt, R., Orwenyo, J., Wang, L.X., Arthos, J., Bewley, C.A., Mascola, J.R., Nabel, G.J., Schief, W.R., Ward, A.B., Wilson, I.A., Kwong, P.D.  (2011) Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9. Nature. Nov. 23, Epub ahead of print.  PMID 22113616