Charles Cochrane, MD

Professor Emeritus
Department of Immunology and Microbiology
California Campus


Research Focus

1. Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammatory Injury
Studies are being conducted on the role of leukocytic proteolytic enzymes, oxidants and phospholipases released in the inflammatory reaction that induce damage to host tissues. Models of inflammatory injury in the lung allow for a comparative analysis of biochemical and morphologic changes in cells and supporting connective tissue matrix proteins and accompanying changes in physiologic parameters in the lung.

2. Development of a Synthetic Peptide Pulmonary Surfactant
for Use in Infant and Adult Human Beings

Modeled on Surfactant Protein B (SP-B) which was found and sequenced in this and other laboratories in the late 1980's, a synthetic peptide was established that, when recombined with synthesized surfactant phospholipids, provides full function in expanding lungs of laboratory animals and human beings that collapse because of a deficiency of surfactant activity. The peptide, KLLLLKLLLLKLLLLKLLLLK (KL4), as well as the SP-B peptide, act by imparting lateral stability to the monolayer of phospholipid molecules through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Final trials in human beings were successful and with FDA approval, the synthetic peptide surfactant will receive world-wide distribution. Work continues on the biochemical means by which the surfactant replacement inhibits inflammatory injury.


M.D., University of Rochester, School of Medicine, 1956
B.A., University of Rochester, 1951

Professional Experience

2005-2017 Professor Emeritus, Immunology and Microbial Science (IMS), Scripps Research
1991-2005 Professor, Immunology and Microbial Science (IMS), Scripps Research
1968-2005 Adjunct Professor of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
1974-1990 Member, Department of Immunopathology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
1985-1987 Head, Division of Vascular Biology and Inflammation, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
1967-1974 Member, Department of Experimental Pathology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
1964-1967 Associate Member, Department of Experimental Pathology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
1961-1964 Associate, Division of Experimental Pathology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic
1960-1961 Assistant Professor, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh
1959-1960 Fellow with Dr. P. Grabar, Department of Microbiological Chemistry, Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur)

Awards & Professional Activities

Centennial "Live and Breathe Award", The American Lung Association, 2004

Selected References

All Publications

Jackson, J., Schraufstatter, I.U., Hyslop, P.A., Vosbeck, K., Sauerheber, R., Weitzman, S.A., and Cochrane, C.G. Role of oxidants in DNA damage: Hydroxyl radical mediates the synergistic DNA damaging effects of asbestos and cigarette smoke. J. Clin. Invest., 80:1090-1095, 1987.

Cochrane, C.G., and Revak, S.D., Pulmonary surfactant protein B
(SP-B): Structure-function relationships. Science 254:566-568, 1991.

Cochrane, C.G., Revak, S.D., Merritt, T.A., Heldt, G.P., Hallman, M., Cunningham, M.D., Easa, D., Pramanik, A., Edwards, D.K., and Alberts, M.S. The efficacy and safety of KL4-Surfactant in preterm infants with RDS. Am. J. Resp. & Crit. Care Med., 153:404-410, 1996.

Cochrane, C.G. A critical examination of the role of SP-B in alveolar expansion. Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology; the Interface Between Laboratory Research and Clinical Practice. 13:27-28 ,2004.