Kim D. Janda, Ph.D.
Worm diseases, while rare in the United States, afflict hundreds of millions of people in many other parts of the world with painful, disfiguring, and debilitating diseases. Established through the generous donation of John J. Moores, The Worm Institute for Research and Medicine (WIRM) is the latest extension of Mr. Moores' long-time interest in worm-carried (filarial) conditions. He founded the River Blindness Foundation in 1989 to distribute a treatment for that disease in developing countries, principally in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1997, the foundation was absorbed into The Carter Center of Atlanta, where he has served on the Board of Trustees since its founding by former President Jimmy Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, in 1994.
Initially, scientists at WIRM are investigating the basic science needed for the development of diagnostic tools for public health practitioners in the field to detect effectively and efficiently the presence of parasitic worms in a person's body. Ultimately, these discoveries may translate into unique approaches for the treatment of filiarial infections throughout the world. Since the inception of WIRM, several talented researchers recognized as leaders in the field of filarial parasites have been recruited to join the institute, including 2002 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine Dr. Sydney Brenner. Dr. Brenner is widely known for his pioneering studies of the nematode C. elegans as a laboratory model organism.
One of the first topics WIRM investigators will tackle is the nematode, or worm, that causes onchocerciasis, one of the world's leading causes of blindness. Onchocerciasis is often referred to as "river blindness" because it occurs in areas close to fast flowing water where the black flies transmitting the parasite, a tiny worm called Onchocerca volvulus, like to lay their eggs. In severe cases, the worms cause lesions and massive inflammation in the eyes of the infected person, leading to vision problems and blindness. The disease is a major problem in many African nations, where 99 percent of all cases occur. It is also endemic in parts of Latin America and certain areas of the Middle East. According to the World Health Organization, some 37 million people in 35 countries are infected with the worm that causes river blindness, and about half a million people are blinded by their infection. River blindness can be treated effectively with the drug ivermectin that has provided free of charge for nearly two decades. However, there is a need to find ways to detect the worms in the field to help public health efforts curtail new infections.
In addition to O. volvulus, WIRM researchers are targeting a number of other organisms including:
In order to develop more effective diagnostic tools for these diseases as well as more efficient treatments, a thorough understanding of the individual nematodes is required. However, as those afflicted with these ailments are primarily found in developing countries, significant attention for these diseases has not been given by the greater scientific community. WIRM aims to fill this gap by assembling a group of investigators from such scientific fields as organic chemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and clinical science, thus allowing this multidisciplinary team to tackle some of the most challenging problems facing filarial parasitology today.